The Bologna Declaration: Tuning Project
In the summer of 2000, a group of universities took up the Bologna challenge collectively and designed a pilot project called 'Tuning educational structures in Europe'. The Tuning project addressed several of the Bologna action lines and notably the adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees, the adoption of a system based on two cycles and the establishment of a system of credits. More specifically, the project aimed at identifying points of reference for generic and subject-specific competences of first and second cycle graduates in a series of subject areas: Business Administration, Education Sciences, Geology, History, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Competences describe learning outcomes: what a learner knows or is able to demonstrate after the completion of a learning process. This concerns both subject specific competences and generic competences like communication skills and leadership.